Augstākā tiesa sarūgtina “kaktu advokātus”

Tiesības uz taisnīgu tiesu ir cilvēka pamattiesības. Šīs tiesības cilvēki var īstenot paši vai ar pārstāvju palīdzību. Tādēļ vietā ir jautājums, kas var realizēt tiesības uz pārstāvību: advokāts vai arī citi kvalificēti juristi? Augstākās tiesas (AT) Senāts  2011. gada 23. novembrī ir devis jaunu atbildi uz šo “neskaidro” jautājumu .

Vispārīgais princips ir noteikts Satversmes 92.pantā: „ikviens var aizstāvēt savas tiesības un likumiskās intereses taisnīgā tiesā. [..]. Ikvienam ir tiesības uz advokāta palīdzību”. Gramatiski lasot, jautājumi nerodas: Pārstāvības tiesības ir piekritīgas tikai advokātiem. Tomēr, kā liecina tiesu prakse, šo jautājumu nevar aplūkot šauri.

Satversmes tiesa (ST) jau 2003. gadā skaidroja Satversmē lietoto jēdzienu “advokāts”: “Tiesības uz advokātu Satversmes 92.panta izpratnē, pirmkārt, ietver tiesības uz kvalificētu juridisko palīdzību [..]. Šāds no Satversmes 92.panta izrietošais ikvienas personas tiesību uz advokāta palīdzību saturs nav izsmeļošs, tas var tikt paplašināts, bet ne ierobežots” (2003.gada 27.jūnijs, lieta Nr.2003-04-01). Šajā lietā ST skatīja Civilprocesa likuma (CPL) 85.panta piektās daļas (“Kasācijas instances tiesā fiziskās un juridiskās personas lietas ved ar advokāta starpniecību”) atbilstību Satversmei.ST apsvērumos norādīja, ka “vest savas lietas un pārstāvēt citas personas ne sliktāk par advokātiem var arī tiesneši un prokurori (likumā noteiktajos gadījumos), juridisko zinātņu doktori, īpašas juridisko palīdzību sniedzošas nevalstiskas organizācijas vai valsts finansētas iestādes, kuras sniedz bezmaksas juridisko palīdzību, kā arī personas, kurām ir augstākā juridiskā izglītība un kuras nokārtojušas attiecīgās prasmes un iemaņas apliecinošu eksāmenu u.tml.” Tādēļ ST uzskatīja, ka minēta norma ir pretrunā ar Satversmes 92.pantu.

Šāda Satversmes tiesas interpretācija saprotamu iemeslu dēļ nebija pozitīvs signāls plašajai advokātu saimei. Taču tā deva zināmu apmierinājumu juristiem, kas dažādu apstākļu dēļ nesastāv advokatūrā. To apstiprina 201o. gada 10. novembra AT Senāta spriedums lietā lietā Nr. SKC-625/2010. Šajā lietā tiesa šķetināja jautājumu, vai zaudētājai pusei ir pienākums segt otrai pusei izdevumus par juridisko palīdzību, ja to sniegusi kapitālsabiedrība, nevis zvērināts advokāts. Šāds jautājums pamatoti radās, jo saskaņā ar CPL 33. pantu un 44. pantu atlīdzināmi ir izdevumi “par advokāta palīdzību”.

AT Senāts iedvesmojoties no ST prakses un Eiropa padomes rezolūcijas, atzina, ka minētajos pantos “ietvertais jēdziens „advokāts” ir jātulko paplašināti, ar to saprotot ne tikai zvērinātus advokātus un advokātu palīgus, bet arī citus kvalificētus juristus, kuri var sniegt juridisko palīdzību un būt par pārstāvjiem lietā.”  Tiesas interpretācija bija skaidra: “[..]pretēja minētajās tiesību normās ietvertā jēdziena „advokāts” interpretācija liecinātu par tiesas nevienlīdzīgu attieksmi pret lietas dalībniekiem atkarībā no tā, kādu pārstāvi juridiskās palīdzības sniegšanai tā izvēlējusies. [..] Šāda atšķirīga attieksme atkarībā no izvēlētā pārstāvja nav pieļaujama, jo ir pretrunā Satversmes 92.pantā noteiktajām personas tiesībām saņemt juridisko palīdzību.”

Tomēr juristiem-neadvokātiem uzvaras garša bija īsa. 2011.gada jūlijā Saeima skatīja priekšlikumu par CPL grozījumiem, kur cita starpā Juridiskā komisija  pēc V.Agešina (SC frakcija) priekšlikuma piedāvāja CPL tekstā izsmeļoši ierakstīt, ka ar lietas vešanu saistītie izdevumi ir arī izdevumi par cita kvalificēta jurista palīdzību (ne tikai advokāta). Faktiski šāds grozījums būtu nostiprinājis augstāk minēto tiesu praksi. Taču pēc kaismīgās deputāta G.Bērziņa  (VL-TB/LNNK ) debašu runas Saeimas plenārsēdē šie grozījumi netika pieņemti. Deputāts atsaucās uz Advokātu padomes un Tieslietu Ministrijas iebildumiem, kurus aicināja ņemt vēra.

Interesanti ir argumenti, kādēļ grozījumi netika atbalstīti. Viens no G.Bērziņa argumentiem bija, ka minētie priekšlikumi veicinātu ēnu ekonomika, “pieļaujot, ka atlīdzības saņemšanas gadījumā kvalificētam juristam nodokļi no saņemtajiem ienākumiem nav jāmaksā.” Taču viņa galvenais arguments bija: “pieņemot šādu normu, tiesām tiks noteikts papildu pienākums vērtēt jurista kvalifikāciju, iespējams, pieprasot atsauksmes un citus pierādījumus un tādējādi vēl vairāk noslogojot tiesu sistēmu.” Līdzīgu viedokli pauda arī S.Āboltiņa (frakcija „Vienotība”), uzverot, ka mērķis ir “lai tiesvedības procesi būtu pēc iespējas kvalitatīvāki”. Tādēļ pēc S.Āboltiņas domām jāturpina darbs pie likumu pilnveidošanas.

Līdz ar to CPL attiecīgās normas netika grozītas un attiecīgās normas palika kā bijušas. Tai pat laikā šīm deputātu debatēm bija ietekme uz turpmāko tiesu paraksi. 2011.gada novembrī AT Senātā atkal nonāca jautājums par izdevumu atlīdzināšanu uzvarētājai pusei (2011. gada 23. novembra spriedums lietā Nr. SKC–377/2011). Šoreiz kvītis bija izrakstījis nevis nevis zvērināts advokāts, bet gan juristu asociācijas pārstāvis. AT Senāts, acīmredzami ietekmējoties no vasasaras karstajām Saeimas debatēm, nolēma, ka šajā gadījumā  izdevumi juridiskās palīdzības samaksai nav atlīdzināmi. Senāts secināja, ka minētajā Saeimas balsojumā “likumdevējs ir veicis nepārprotamu izšķiršanos par jēdziena „advokāts” neattiecināšanu uz juristiem, kas nav zvērināti advokāti, ko apstiprina arī pirms balsojuma notikušās debates, kurās skaidri iezīmēti minētā priekšlikuma neatbalstīšanas iemesli. Tādējādi Senātam ir jāatkāpjas no iepriekš judikatūrā izteiktām atziņām[..].”

Varētu šķist, ka līdz ar minēto tiesas spriedumu epopeja ap jēdzienu “advokāts” ir noslēgusies. Tomēr tas ir šķietami, jo neatbildētie juridiskie jautājumi ir vairāk kā pirmajā mirklī rādās.

Pirmkārt, vai saglabājot pastāvošo CPL kārtību, tiešām mainījās likuma interpretācija: un vai Senātam likumdevēja debates par pastāvošo likumu bija saistošas? Šķiet, Senātam bija iespēja uzskatīt, ka likumdevēja debates attiecīgajā situācijā ir tikai atšķirīga likuma normu  interpretācija, un šai interpretācijai nav obligāti jāsaskan ar tiesas izpratni.

Otrkārt, vai AT Senāts, mainot jēziena “advokāts” (CPL 33. un 44.p.) interpretāciju, vairs neuzkatīja līdzīgi kā gadu iepriekš, ka šāda jauna interpretācija ir pretrunā ar Satvermes 92.pantu? Šis jautājums tiešā veidā spriedumā netiek atbildēts. Ja Senāts uzskatīja, ka  pretrunas ir, tam bija iespēja izmantot savas tiesības vērsties Satversmes tiesā un lūgt pārbaudīt CPL 33. un 44.panta satversmību.

Treškārt, ja galvenais likumdevēja apsvērums neveikt grozījumus bija “kvalitātes kritērijs”, jeb nespēja pārliecināties par jurista kvalifikāciju, vai Senātam nešķita pašsaprotami, ka attiecībā uz atlīdzību šiem apsvērumiem nav nozīmes? Ir acīmredzami, ka pat ja tiesas proces dalībnieks ir izvēlējies “neadvokātu” savu interešu aizstāvībai (piemēram, intelektuālā īpašuma lietās patentu pilnvaroto) un šis “neadvokāts” ir panācis klientam labvēlīgu iznākumu, tas ir pietiekams kvalitātes apliecinājums. Nav skaidrs, kādēļ šādam pārstāvim būtu jāliedz saņemt atlīdzību no zaudējušās puses.

Visbeidzot, apstāklis, ka Senāts lietu izskatīja trīs tiesnešu (turklāt viens no viņiem bija autors arī iepriekšējam nolēmumam) nevis paplašinātā sastāvā, arī dod pamatu uzskatīt, ka šāda judikatūras maiņa nav notikusi pēc augstākajiem tiesiskuma kanoniem? Lai arī CPL neparedz obligātu judikatūras maiņas jautājumu skatīšanu paplašinātā sastāvā, tiesību zinātnē ir pamatoti skaidrota nepieciešamība pēc šādas kārtības (sk. Sniedzīte Ginta, Atsevišķi tiesnešu tiesību normu piemērošanu ietekmējošie faktori. Jurista Vārds Nr.42 (637) Otrdiena, 2010. gada 19. oktobris).

Minētie ir jautājumi, kuri visticamāk vēl neļaus aizvērt lapaspusi sāgā par advokatūras lomu Latvijas tiesību sistēmā. Ir acīmredzami, saprotami un pamatoti centieni stiprināt advokātūras prestižu un kvalitāti. Atzinības vērtu darbu šajā jomā dara Latvijas Zvērinātu advokātu padome.  Tik tiešām “neadvokāti” neriskē ar mundiera godu un šīs “bezatbildības” dēļ nereti tiek saukti par “kaktu advokātiem”.  Vienlaikus nevar nepamanīt, ka šie centieni ierobežot ” kaktu advokātu” bezatbildību tiek īstenoti ar fragmentārām darbībam, iespējams ačgārnā kārtībā. Situācijā, kad par Satversmei  neatbilstošām uzskata normas par pārstāvju loka ierobežošanu, var apšaubīt arī citu normu konstitucionalitāti, kas pēc būtības noved pie tāda paša rezultāta.

224 comments

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    Paldies par interesanto publikāciju! Ar tiem neadvokātiem civilprocesā tiešām iet tā kā ar karstu kartupeli. Un abām pozīcijām ir pulka priekšrocību un trūkumu.
    Diskutabls gan ir Jūsu viedoklis, ka “Tik tiešām “neadvokāti” neriskē ar mundiera godu un šīs “bezatbildības” dēļ nereti tiek saukti par ”kaktu advokātiem”.” Lasot par tā dēvēto “mundiera godu”, nāk prātā anekdote par sabraukto suni, pirms kura redzamas bremzēšanas pēdas (pirms advokāta – nē). Mēs, kaktu advokāti, reizēm šausmināmies par dažu zv.Advokātu (ar lielo “A”) paviršību, neprofesionalitāti, bezatbildību un nekaunību, un nespējam noticēt, ka tāda līmeņa juridiskais “pakalpojums” vispār realitātē ir iespējams :)) Tās nav ķengas, bet konkrēti zv.Advokāti (ar lielo “A”) ar konkrētiem uzvārdiem. Bet tas jau ir atsevišķs stāsts.

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